Women Attend Eid Salah
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Let the free women, the virgins, and the menstruating women attend the Eid prayer, and witness the good and the supplications of the believers. As for the menstruating women, they should stay away from the Musallah (i.e.. should not participate in the prayer itself).” [Sahih al-Bukharee and Sahih Muslim]
A short description of the Eid Prayer
1 – The Eid Salaah consists of two Raka’ahs. Umar (radhi allahu anhu) said: “The traveler’s prayer is two raka’ah; the Adha prayer is two Raka’ah; and the Jumuah prayer is two Rak’ah; this is their full length as came from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam).” [(saheeh) Musnad Ahmad, Nisa’ee, Baihaqee and others]
2 – The Eid Salaah is not preceded by the adhan (the call to announce the prayer time) or Iqamah (the call to start prayer). Jabir bin Samurah (radhi allahu anhu) said: “I prayed the Eid prayer with Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), on more than one occasion, without adhan or Iqamah.” [Saheeh Muslim]
3 – No Sunnah prayer may precede or follow the Eid prayer, except if it is performed in a Masjid instead of a Musallah, in which case one must pray two raka’hs before sitting down. Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) reported: “The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) went out (of his house) on the day of Fitr, prayed two raka’hs and did not pray before or after it.” [Zaad al-Maad (2/443)]
4 – Like any other deed in Islam, the prayer must be preceded with a true intention of worshiping Allah alone in the heart.
5 – The first raka’h (one prayer unit) is initiated with Takbeer al-ihram, followed by the opening supplication.
6 – Then followed by seven Takbeers in the first raka’h and five more in the second rak’ah. Aa’ishah (radhi allahu anha) said: “Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) would say Takbeer in both Fitr and Adha: seven in the first and five in the second, other than the two Takbeers of Ruku (bowing).” [(Saheeh) – Abu Dawood (1150) and others]
7 – After the Takbeer one should recite Ta’awwuth – ‘A’uthu billahi min ash-Shaytaan ir-Rajeem’ meaning “I seek refuge in Allah from the outcast devil” and Basmallah ‘Bismillah ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem’ meaning ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.’
8 – Followed by the recitation of Soorah al-Fatihah
9 – Then, the recitation of Soorah al-Qaaf in the first raka’h and the Soorah al-Qamar in the second – OR – Soorah al-Alaa in the first and Soorah al-Ghashiyah in the second. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullah) said: “Both of these have been authentically reported from the action of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), nothing else is authentic.” [Zaad al-Maad (1/443)] Note: Reciting a Soorah different from the ones mentioned above will too complete the prayer. The remainder of the prayer is performed in the same manner as any other prayer, without any difference.
The Eid Khutbah:
The Sunnah of the Eid Khutbah is that it should be delivered after the Eid Salaah. Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) said: “I attended the Eid with Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), Abu Bakr (radhi allahu anhu) Umar (radhi allahu anhu) and Uthman (radhi allahu anahu); all of them would pray before the Khutbah.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Listening to the Eid Khutbah is not wajib, Abdullah bin as-Sa’ib (radhi allahu anhu) reported that he attended the Eid prayer with the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam); and when he (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) finished the prayer, he said: “We shall have a Khutbah; so let whoever wishes to sit for the Khutbah do so, and whoever wishes to leave, may leave.” [(saheeh) Abu Dawood)]
If the Eid falls on a Friday, it becomes optional for men to attend the Jumu’ah prayer. Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) reported that on such occurrence, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Two Eids have coincided on this day of yours; thus whoever wishes, is exempted from attending the Jumu’ah prayer. Yet, we shall hold it.” [Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee in Irwa ul-Ghalil]
It should be noted that if one does not attend the Jumu’ah prayer, then it becomes obligatory on him to offer the Dhuhr prayer.